The Changing Face of Make-up 1910 – 2010(0)
Most women apply make-up on a daily basis. There is the everyday look for work and being out and about which is usually quite toned down to give a natural but preened appearance and then we transform our looks for the night time to add some more drama and sex appeal. Could you even imagine not having make-up these days to apply to that one pesky spot that wont leave your face or to hide some unsightly under eye bags after a long trip? Make up has evolved rapidly over the years and has managed to adapt and change to the latest fashions and must have looks.
What we as a nation consider to be trendy and flattering in our make-up styles now may seem ridiculous to our children twenty years down the line when they look back on our photos. However, trends do tend to resurface from time to time. So to truly understand where make-up styles are headed it is necessary to take a look back at how it has evolved over the last century.
Before this point, Queen Victoria had reigned and she publicly despised the use of make-up. Victorians associated make-up and its use with prostitutes and actresses (who were tarred with the same brush back then) and if you wore bold colours you were thought to be trashy. Higher classes of women were expected to use products sparingly and their skin colour should not have been tampered with. During these times, to be pale was to be interesting and Parasols were used to protect the complexion from any sun damage. Ladies like to be thought of as fragile and would emphasise their femininity and delicacy. An outbreak of TB during this decade helped women to achieve this pale and sickly look they desired whilst the healthy women went to the extremes of drinking vinegar and arsenic and even dropping belladonna into their eyes (a poisonous liquid that would dilate the pupils giving them a dreamy, misty look) so to look a certain way. It was considered chic to look sick! Some religions even claimed that beauty products were the look of the devil.
Queen Victoria died in 1901 and perceptions began to change slightly with some social restrictions lifting. Make-up was still for “hussies” during this time but picture folk began making it more acceptable. In 1909, Max Factor opened up his first makeup studio in Hollywood and this was the beginning of his cosmetic empire. Full make-up was still seen as sinful but women were now allowed to apply some pink tones to their cheeks to give a little bit of a glow. Red beet juice would be rubbed in to the cheeks, rice powder used to dust their noses and scented vinegars were used for face cleansing. At this time, lipsticks contained some very questionable ingredients.
However, the revolution was beginning as during the 1910’s women were starting to make their own mascara by adding hot beads of wax to the tips of their eyelashes and then the first mascara was produced in 1914 by Maybelline. Vogue also pictured women using henna to outline their eyes which the movie industry took on board immediately. Press powder blush and metal lipstick cases were also introduced but the Victorian look remained in fashion until the 1920’s.
In the 1920’s make-up began to be used again. Visible make-up was now considered a must by city women although it was still frowned upon by those in the country. There was also great advancements in cosmetics during this era with Elizabeth Arden developing cleansing and nourishing creams, tonics and lotions.
Face make-up was still very pale at this time but the bold make-up that was once considered trashy was now thought of as sexy. The 20’s brought along shorter hemlines, and flappers with dark lipstick in reds, browns and blacks being popular. Eyebrows were penciled on thinly and made to look lifted and bold. Dark kohl eyes were applied for a dramatic look. Smoky eyes that we tend to see today originated at this time. Hair was very boy like with bob or finger waves being the favoured look as women actually did not want to look like women at all. The loose silhouette of the flapper dress was in stark contrast to the corseted waist of the Victorian era.
Near the end of the 1930’s, slightly lighter red lipstick started to become fashionable and women began to care about their figures in order to achieve the boyish, thin look that had gained in popularity. Most women began exercising and weight lifting to get defined arms.
1930’s and 1940’s
As the 1930’s progressed it seemed that the lipstick got redder and redder changing colour every year. It was applied quite thickly and the lipstick at this time left quite an undesirable stain leading to the saying that ‘kissing had become unfashionable’.
From the 1930’s through to the 1950’s, movie stars were huge role models for the make-up trends of the time. This was definitely Hollywood’s Golden Age and everyone mimicked their style to attempt to look like A-list stars such as Rita Hayworth and Audrey Hepburn (who made the deeply outlined cat eye famous).
Women began to look feminine once more by growing out there hair to longer lengths and toning down the dark, edgy make-up. Bright red lipstick and eye shadows were now popular whilst eyebrows were plucked to a thinner line than in the 1920’s. Fingernails became scarlet and were grown to extreme length, whilst toenails were contrasted in pink nail enamel. Make-up had become a little less drag and bit more ‘girl next door’ though and the pasty white skin trend was finally passé, and women started opting for foundations closer to their own natural complexions.
During the 1940’s women were being called upon to do a lot due to the war. Make-up was more natural such as creamy skin, smoothly powdered with a natural looking pinkish hue and lips in a patriotic red as a regime that was easy to maintain. The focus for this time was the eyes and lashes as mascara had found its place during this decade. Women were encouraged to look their best in order to put up a good front and literally “put on a brave face”. Hence, women were splashing out on cosmetics which further improved the industry. Women were earning their first paychecks so proceeded to shop, dress elegantly and use cosmetics just like their favourite movie stars. Part of the rationale was that the nation’s women couldn’t afford to look frumpy in a time of war.
All around the world, men were returning home from the war which resulted in the roles of women changing once more. Once the men had returned, women could spend more time on their hair and make-up regimes. Movie stars like Marilyn Monroe were making the hour glass figure popular.
During this period shorter hair was back in fashion and straight hair was definitely out! Women’s hair was soft and curly which was achieved by pin curling and rolling. Occasionally, the hair would be put back in a ponytail with a chiffon ribbon but this was only for the daytime. More and more make-up cosmetics were hitting the market due to the introduction of colour TV sets. Max Factor introduced foundation he called “Pan Cake”. This was a makeup to gloss over skin imperfections and was the first of its kind along with the innovation of adding titanium to tone down the brightness of some products which resulted in lips with a paler shimmering gleam being worn.
1950’s women had to always look immaculate as they were taught that their goal was to find a man and that having a family was the most important thing. Hence, they dressed to allure. However, the main make-up difference in the 1950’s was that women began to focus more on having flawless skin than anything else with the goal of having a peaches and cream complexion.
In the 1960’s it was not seen as acceptable for young girls to wear bright and blazen red lipstick. As Max Factor were adding titanium to their lipsticks they bought out pastel pearly pink shades. These soon caught on with young girls who initially wore the colours because they were acceptable to parents but the trend stuck and spread. Deep red lips were no longer fashionable. Nail colours also followed this pastel trend.
During this period Twiggy became the inspiration and the new poster girl that everyone wanted to be like. Her thin frame and different make-up look became known as the mod style.
The big emphasis in the sixties became the eyes and so these were made to really stand out whilst the lips blended in. Everyone learned to apply eyeliner and to effectively line their eye sockets to be able to capture that true sixties chick look. The fashions of the Fifties decade were for grown women but the difference in the sixties was that the fashion knocked about ten years off the average age of the consumer. Cosmetics companies now had a whole other audience buying in to their brands strengthening the cosmetic industry even further. Foundation in the 1960’s was always applied heavily in order to mask the complexion and pink blush was applied to complete the mod look. Mascara was a vital component to the look; preferably so thickly applied that the lashes clumped together in spikes much like false eyelashes. Big, dramatic eyes were the ultimate fashion ploy.
The 1970’s really became the era of the no make-up style whatsoever. It can be characterised as an almost anything goes time. However, disco did become popular and the John Travolta styles of dress were sweeping the nation. Disco beauty trends stomped on simple and demure, and instead women splashed on the shine, color and maximum glamour possible for a night out. Disco divas piled on the black mascara, shimmery eye shadow and white eyeliner much like the girls from Abba. Blondes with blue eyes loved wearing frosty white or blue eye shadow and women with olive skin tones and brown or green eyes picked earth tones instead. Again, eyes were the most important aspect of the 1970’s look.
However, during the daytime people were trying to recreate more the look of Farrah Fawcett. Firstly, she revolutionised the way women styled their hair opting for a long and feathery type look which appeared very natural and undone (compared to the night scene where the Afro style of hair was preferred). Farrah also marked the beginning of bronzing and tanning. Everyone wanted to emulate her laid back, natural and healthy style. Hence, during the day not a lot of make-up would be worn. If foundation was applied no powder would be added to leave a shimmering shine and very pale and nude colours of lipstick and eyeshadow would be chosen to wear. Bronzers and tanners really took off in the seventies and continue to be popular to this day.
Artists such as Madonna lead the way with these trends. The eye make-up was extremely exaggerated in order to match the hair and make the face stand out. As a result, colour trends were very bold including blues, greens, Fuschia and orange and everything popped. A boldness was placed on the lips and eyes with heavy liner on both. 80’s colours were loud and everyone wore bright play suits to match the extremely bright make-up giving one overall loud look. It may seem extreme and crazy now but a full set of make-up was applied each morning before setting off to work as this was an important part of being taken seriously in the work place. Another turning point was that Brooke Shields made thick and bushy eyebrows sexy once more.
The significant make up look of the early 1990’s was that of Grunge which adorned flannel shirts and an overall unkempt look. This look of disheveled makeup and hair was not supposed to look pretty or glamorous, rather the opposite. The popularity of Grunge music strongly influenced this trend.
Slept in and heavily applied black mascara and eyeliner which often appeared smudge was the look that became popular along with smeared off red lipstick and black and often chipped nail polish. Unlike in other eras there was no one trying to look pristine and perfect. Blush was not worn and eyebrows weren’t shaped. However, the mid 90’s saw a complete turn around to pretty make-up once again. Jennifer Aniston became idolised as Rachel in Friends along with the stars of Beverly Hills 90210. Kate Moss then took a minimalist approach to makeup which was a big turning point.
Neutral tones were extremely popular in the late 1990’s with lots of brown shades been worn on the eyes and lips. Mascara in browns and blacks also were popular. Blushes were creamy pinks, dusty rose tints, and neutral/bronze colors. Eyebrows of were of medium thickness, well-kept and sometimes bleached.
New Millennium (2000 to Present)
Make-up has undergone many developments and changed to suit women’s needs and fashions trends throughout the ages. Nowadays we have more choice than ever and we needn’t worry about any dangerous chemicals in our products. Many women now go for a more natural look throughout the day and a dramatic smoky eye on the night time.
But to be honest, unlike previous eras we tend to no longer follow completely set trends. Women are always experimenting and sticking with a style which suits them and not everyone else. The The Make-up industry offers more choice now than ever which allows us to revisit any of these past styles at whatever time we choose.
Marlon Brando with His Cat and Lap Top(0)
The obvious question comes to mind: what makes the cat odd?
Marlon Brando, Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor who performed for over half a century.
He was perhaps best known for his Academy Award-winning performance as Vito Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola’s The Godfather (1972) and for his roles as Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) and his Academy Award-winning performance as Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront (1954), both directed by Elia Kazan. In middle age he also played Colonel Walter Kurtz in Apocalypse Now (1979), also directed by Coppola, and delivered an Academy Award-nominated performance as Paul in Last Tango in Paris (1972).
Brando had a significant impact on film acting. He was the foremost example of the “method” acting style, and became notorious for his “mumbling” diction, but his mercurial performances were highly regarded and he is now considered one of the greatest American film actors of the twentieth century. Director Martin Scorsese said of him, “He is the marker. There’s ‘before Brando’ and ‘after Brando’.'” Actor Jack Nicholson once said, “When Marlon dies, everybody moves up one.”
Brando was also an activist, supporting many issues, notably the American Civil Rights and various American Indian Movements.